Once I visited a great library with many many books. Momentarily, a bitter thought came up in my mind: “ so much information and all is disconnected. Words on pages are just blobs of ink, and only inside the human mind they integrate together”. After this, I became convinced — we store information in the wrong way!

The internal model of the world lies in the core of intelligence (see what is intelligence?). It somehow is encoded and stored in neural activation patterns that we call memories. But how exactly is it stored? …


A biological neuron is a very powerful computational device (read here to know how much powerful). Current mathematical models like threshold, ReLU and other artificial neurons are much simpler than the real neuron. Still, we don’t fully understand even the simple ones. It took many years to realize that ReLU works better than sigmoid in practice. Where else are we mistaken?

Maybe, before making neural networks bigger and bigger we need to better understand the first principles?

Common view, that a neuron is just a parametric function y =f(x,w). And by varying parameters (weights, w) we change this function. How…


To spike or not to spike?

It is well known that a neuron is the main cell of the nervous system. It generates electrical pulses as large as 0.1Volts, has sprouts — axons (as long as 1 meter) and dendrites (several millimeters), and lives more than 100 years. You will not find another more marvelous cell in the body. Still, I will not write about biological details (despite how interesting they are). Rather, I will try to define the most important computational principles, which might help with the progression to artificial intelligence (AI).

Convergence towards principles always leads to simplification and generalization, but it can be…


Notice: This map is not a precise reflection of the state of the AI field, but just my subjective representation.

This is my first map as of the end of 2020 and will be extended in the future. It contains more than 200 words or phrases, so to describe all of them would be too extensive and overkill. Much more interesting (and useful for me) to tell how this map was gradually building in my head. I will not explain everything, just the main things, so it is normal not to understand something.

The story begins in 2013 after I…


Not so long ago an interesting survey was released. Some of the most influential AI scientists were asked when we could create AI with human-level intelligence. The result is compelling: 50% chance it will happen before 2050, 90% — before 2070. Of course, there were few total skeptics with the answer “never” (what are pessimists:) but still, with a high probability, it will happen in this century. If humanity will proceed at the same pace (without nuclear wars or catastrophic climate events) it seems that the creation of human-level AI is inevitable.

Strong AI brings obvious benefits, known by most…


Homo sapiens strive to create artificial intelligence for at least 70 years. Someday we succeed and it will be our greatest invention. However, we still do not have a well-accepted definition of what intelligence is. Someone says it is related to the memory, how much a person knows. Or it has something to do with problem-solving. There is no clear answer. The same in Wikipedia, it describes intelligence as a collection of traits with too many words

Scientists can not agree as well, but perhaps the most supported is the following definition:

Intelligence is the ability to achieve goals in…


Do you have this feeling that we live in a fascinating time? That our future brings us crazy and marvelous discoveries? That we will create artificial intelligence, uncover mysteries of the brain, overcome the biological form, maybe even in our lifetime? I have this feeling too… Or… I had. Some time ago I was infected with the disturbing and annoying idea that we are moving too slow and in the wrong direction. Not that we need to abandon science and return to mother nature, no, our fate is to peel through the deepest riddles of the universe. But the idea…

Viacheslav Osaulenko

Scientist from Ukraine. Author of a blog about artificial intelligence @AITerritory

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store